Carnegie Corporation of New York
The Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) is a U.S. philanthropic foundation established with the vast wealth of Scottish steel magnate and 'father of American philanthropy', Andrew Carnegie in 1911. Under the direction of Frederick P. Keppel (1923-1941), the corporation expanded their activities, largely centred on library development and donation of church organs, to include adult education and the arts.
Between 1927 and 1941, the CCNY developed the 'Commonwealth Program' (originally the 'British Dominions and Colonies Fund'), in order to gift church organs, libraries, teaching materials and travel grants to various learning institutions in the British Empire. This included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Africa and Asia.
The history of Carnegie philanthropy throughout the British Empire continues to attract criticism as a form of cultural diplomacy or cultural imperialism, where the desire to secure international relations of strategic importance was the driving force behind grants and assistance in education.